Digital Wittgenstein Scholarship

2014

2013

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Open Humanities Awards: FinderApp WITTFind

This is the final in a series of posts from Dr Maximilian Hadersbeck, the recipient of the DM2E Open Humanities Awards – DM2E track. You can read the final research paper here (in German).

The research group “Wittgenstein in Co-Text” worked on extending the FinderApp WiTTFind tool, which is currently used for exploring and researching Wittgenstein’s Big Typescript TS-213 (BT), to the rest of the 5000 pages of Wittgenstein’s Nachlass that are made freely available by the Wittgenstein Archives at the University of Bergen and are used as linked data software from the DM2E project. Our work in January focused on finishing the final milestone of our project, finalizing the device and browser independent multidoc web frontend, successful placing a publication of our project. We close off our blogging series with some final remarks and a look in the future

Delivering the final milestone
We finished our gitlab and docker environment to produce a high quality FinderApp for Digital Humanity projects running under different operating systems. The git-server site is developed and offers all software modules. After extensive working and testing the development server we finalized and transferred the new FinderApp WiTTFind to our master-server, reachable under the permalink http://wittfind.cis.uni-muenchen.de.

To present our extensive work during our git-server based program development, we show in figure 1 a small excerpt of our issue management and branching concept at our git-server. There you see around 20 features, which where finished within the final milestone.

Finalizing the device and browser independent multidoc web-frontend
After finishing the development work of our bootstrap based FinderApp, we finalized our new multidoc web frontend and will also transfer it to our WiTTFind master server.

Starting in February, we will offer a browser- and device-independent web frontend which works with the same look & feel on mobile devices, tablet computers and arbitrary browsers. In figure 2 you see a screenshot of our new bootstrap driven webpage, reachable under our permalink address: http://wittfind.cis.uni-muenchen.de.

Successful placing a publication
One aim in our project was to place a publication of our work at an important congress. We followed the call for papers of the conference Digital Humanities im deutschsprachigen Raum – DhD 2015 (23-27 February 2015, Graz, Austria) and sent a paper and a poster to the conference committee. Both were evaluated well and accepted. In Graz, we will be presenting the paper “Wittgensteins Nachlass: Erkenntnisse und Weiterentwicklung der FinderApp WiTTFind“. The speaker will be Maximilian Hadersbeck. Co-authors to the text are Alois Pichler, Florian Fink, Daniel Bruder and Ina Arends. The poster which will be presented gives a demo of our project and has the title “Wittgensteins Nachlass: Aufbau und Demonstration der FinderApp WiTTFind und ihrer Komponenten.” The authors of the poster are Yuliya Kalasouskaya, Matthias Lindinger, Stefan Schweter and Roman Capsamun. Both presentations can be found in the programme of the conference: https://www.conftool.pro/dhd2015/sessions.php

WAB 5000

WAB 5000 is a corpus of 5000 manually transcribed pages composed of various manuscripts and typescripts from Wittgensteins Nachlass.

The parts of the Wittgenstein Nachlass include selections from:

  • the Notes on Logic complex: TS 201a1, TS 201a2 (1913-14);
  • the Lecture on Ethics complex: MS 139a, TS 207 (1929);
  • the Big Typescript complex: MS 114, MS 115 (first part), MS 153a, MS 153b, MS 154, MS 155, MS 156a, MS 148, MS 149, MS 150, TS 212, TS 213 (1931-34);
  • the Brown Book complex: MS 115 (second part), MS 140 (p. 39v), MS 141, MS 152, TS 310 (1934-36).
Type Corpus in XML (TEI-P5) and HTML output (different versions) formats, XSLT stylesheets, Web interface
Size More than 2 million words
Languages German and English
Rightholders
  • The Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge
  • Bertrand Russell Archives, Ontario (Ts-201a1, Ts-201a2)
  • Oxford University Press, Oxford
  • University of Bergen, Bergen
  • Uni Research, Bergen
Access & reuse policy Creative Commons General Public License Attribution, Non-Commercial, Share-Alike version 3.0 (CC-BY-NC-SA)
Location The Wittgenstein Archives at the University of Bergen
Ms-114 Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ms-115 Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ms-139a Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ms-140,39v Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ms-141 Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ms-148 Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ms-149 Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ms-150 Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ms-152 Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ms-153a Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ms-153b Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ms-154 Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ms-155 Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ms-156a Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ts-201a1 Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Typewritten-text-only presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ts-201a2 Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Typewritten-text-only presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ts-207 Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Typewritten-text-only presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ts-212 Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Typewritten-text-only presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ts-213 Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Typewritten-text-only presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML
Ts-310 Diplomatic presentation Normalized presentation Typewritten-text-only presentation Alternatives presentation Facsimile XML

PhiloSURFical

What
Tool for browsing a philosophical text, taking advantage of a map of the concepts relevant to the text.

PhiloSURFical is a prototype application built to experiment some functionalities which are enabled by the growing Semantic Web: data are distributed, but can be coherently recollected by means of their semantic description. It’s like if the whole Web could be treated as a giant database: we can query it in interesting ways, so to dynamically reorganize it depending on the context we are looking from.

The PhiloSURFical application is being prototyped with Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico Philosophicus and it allows the navigation of a semantically enhanced version of the text. By relying on an ontology created to describe the philosophical domain at various levels of abstraction, users can benefit from multiple perspectives on the text and on related resources. For example, they can reorganize the same text according to the relevance of a single metadata, e.g. the concept of “logical-independence” ; they can query the knowledge base or other repositories in the Semantic Web, such as the DBpedia, by choosing an object of interest (i.e. a topic) and using it to trigger a theoretical narrative (i.e. meta-historical), a historical narrative , or a geographical one . This is achieved by using simultaneously the knowledge encoded in the ontology, an initial knowledge base of resources and metadata built by a philosophy teacher, and the SPARQL query language to gather information from other sources in the Semantic Web.

Corpus
Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

Who
Michele Pasin

Where
http://philosurfical.open.ac.uk/

WiTTFind

 

What
Rule-based, linguistic search interface for Wittgenstein primary sources.

This project is a cooperation between the Centrum für Informations- und Sprachverarbeitung (CIS) at the Ludwig Maximilians Universität München  and the Wittgenstein Archives at the University of Bergen (WAB). The task of the project is to develop a FinderApp containing several computational tools which make Wittgenstein’s Nachlass better researchable.

CIS Resources include CIS’ electronic lexicon CISLEX, one of the biggest electronic lexicon for the German language. CIS software tools include an own developed search/concordance tool WiTTFind based on “Local Grammars”. CIS software and resources can be accessed on the CisServers with every Internetbrowser.

Resources from WAB include 5000 pages of the Wittgenstein Nachlass in facsimile, text editions and transcriptions, an ontology file with metadata for these 5000 pages, including detailed records for Wittgenstein’s references to other works or persons.

The Research group is directed by Maximilian Hadersbeck (CIS) and Alois Pichler (WAB). Other participants include Florian Fink (CIS), Øyvind Liland Gjesdal (WAB),  Daniel Bruder (CIS)  and  Stefan Schweter (CIS).

Corpus
The Big Typescript

Who
CIS / WAB

Where
http://wittfind.cis.uni-muenchen.de/

DM2E

What
As part of the Digitised Manuscripts to Europeana (DM2E) project, a group of scholars will begin working on Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Brown Book in early 2013. This document will be made available to Europeana by the Wittgenstein Archives at the University of Bergen (WAB).

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language. In 1999, his posthumously published Philosophical Investigations (1953) was ranked as the most important book of 20th-century philosophy by the Baruch Poll, standing out as ‘…the one crossover masterpiece in twentieth-century philosophy, appealing across diverse specialisations and philosophical orientations’.

In 2009, WAB created the online platform Wittgenstein Source which gives open access to 5,000 pages of manuscripts and typescripts from the Wittgenstein nachlass, including the Brown Book corpus. The Brown Book was dictated by Wittgenstein to students in Cambridge in 1934-35 as a summary of his philosophy at that time. One aspect of the book is the introduction of ‘language games’ which shed light on the complexity of our language. The Brown Book was revised several times; Wittgensteinsource includes both the typewritten dictation and the last revision in Wittgenstein’s own hand, which led to the Philosophical Investigations.

A group of scholars will gather around Wittgenstein Source in order to address their questions to the Brown Book. In order to achieve this, they will make use of the Pundit platform, which is being developed within the DM2E project. The platform allows scholars to access the Brown Book easily and to create semantic annotations of particular relevance. Through the platform, they will also be able to interact and comment on each other’s views and questions.

WAB will provide the texts as well as an ontology which can be used as the backbone for scholarly annotation and interaction on these texts. This ontology will include names for the single texts (on a remarks level), the persons and works referred to, text-genetical relations, but also terms for subject entries, and, moreover, properties which allow scholars to express argumentative relations between single annotation statements.

The Wittgenstein pilot has an important experimental aspect as it will demonstrate to what extent humanities scholars are willing to migrate research and argumentation activities to a digital environment, and highlight the challenges and limitations they experience as well as the new opportunities this kind of working makes available to them.

Corpus
Brown Book

Who
DM2E project

Where
http://dm2e.eu/dm2e-to-start-work-on-wittgensteins-brown-book/

Agora

What
Enrich the Wittgenstein ontology inherited from the DISCOVERY project with further classes and properties.

In AGORA’s semantic linking experiment carried out by CNR-ILIESI and UIB-WAB a subset of the content (scholarly articles, monographs) will be linked to related data sets (editions of texts, manuscripts) most of which are already available in the Philosource Federation. The semantic linking will connect the digital objects with ontological classes that express the most important domain concepts. The experiment’s goal is to enable a novel way of building, querying and browsing a knowledge network and to assess its suitability as a collaborative research tool as well as a learning tool. The resulting RDF graphs will be published on the web and harvested by the Federation Portal.

In the first 18 months, UIB-WAB has enriched the Wittgenstein domain ontology inherited from the DISCOVERY project with further classes and properties. It has continued with populating it with instances, especially in the secondary sources and subject domains. The backbone for UIB-WAB’s ontology work is its transcriptions of both primary and secondary sources in XML TEI, from which OWL files are extracted via XSLT stylesheets. The OWL files can be visualized in the ontology browser SwickyNotes which permits interlinked browsing of texts and related ontologies.

Corpus
Nachlass (WAB 5000)

Who
WAB

Where
http://www.project-agora.org/experiments/semantic-linking/

Wittgenstein ontology

What
Wittgenstein ontology, exemplifying some of its basic concepts and functions.

A first version of WAB’s Wittgenstein ontology, exemplifying some of its basic concepts and functions (e.g. interlinking of primary source class instances on the one hand and philosophical subject class instances on the other), was produced by WAB in cooperation with Christian Morbidoni (Philospace/SwickyNotes) and the consortium of the EU funded DISCOVERY project in the period 2006-09. It was developed further within the framework of the NordForsk funded JNUVWAB project (2008-11), and is today continued in the EU funded projects AGORA (2011-13) and DM2E (2012-14), and the Norwegian National Library funded project DIGITALE FULLTEKSTARKIV (DF) (2012-13) at the University of Bergen Library. For an early short slides overview of the ontology’s classes and relations and for application samples, see Alois Pichler’s presentation.

Contributors: Christian Erbacher (WAB; design, dissemination), Rune Jensen Falch (WAB; semantic markup of secondary sources, dissemination), Øyvind Liland Gjesdal (WAB; XSLT, RDF, OWL, dissemination), Heinz Wilhelm Krüger (WAB; semantic markup of secondary sources, semantic markup of Big Typescript complex, dissemination), Alois Pichler (WAB; all tasks, coordination), Deirdre Smith (WAB; semantic markup of secondary sources, semantic markup of Lecture on Ethics complex, semantic markup of Brown Book complex, dissemination), Mark Addis (Univ. of Aarhus and Birmingham City University; philosophy of mathematics terms, dissemination), Hans Biesenbach (author of “Anspielungen und Zitate in den Schriften Ludwig Wittgensteins”; Wittgenstein’s references to other authors and works), Steen Brock (Univ. of Aarhus; philosophy of psychology terms, dissemination), James M. Fielding (Univ. of Paris I; consultancy), James Klagge (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia; consultancy, subject terms), Jakub Macha (Masaryk University; consultancy, dissemination), Christian Morbidoni (author of Philospace and SwickyNotes; consultancy), Špela Vidmar (University of Ljubljana; semantic markup of On Certainty and Remarks on Colour manuscripts), Amélie Zöllner-Weber (author of “Figurenontologie”; consultancy, dissemination). Responsible editor and coordinator: Alois Pichler.

Corpus

  • wittgenstein.owl (last changed 2013, June 25; CCPL BY-NC-SA): Intended primarily for the browsing of Wittgenstein’s writings (with Wittgenstein Source in focus) and their internal and external relations, including bibliographic metadata such as relations between Nachlass sources and “works”, references to persons and works of others, datings of the single remarks, and also text genetic paths. The ontology also permits interlinked browsing of relevant secondary sources, stemming mainly from the ALWS Kirchberg Wittgenstein symposia and WAB’s own publication series (see http://wab.uib.no/agora-alws/ and http://wab.uib.no/agora-wab/), including browsing of semantic metadata. The ontology is produced via XSLT extraction from XML-TEI(P5) versions of the source materials.
  • wittgenstein.owl (last changed 2013, November 1; CCPL BY-NC-SA): The same as above, with the following modification: The namespaces “:scho”, “:baseinst” and “:” are moved to resolvable URIs at http://purl.org/wittgensteinsource/.

Who
WAB

Where
http://wab.uib.no/wab_philospace.page

HyperWittgenstein

What
Interactive site to filter and present WAB’s transcriptions of 5000 pages of the Wittgenstein Nachlass.

With this interactive site, users can filter and present WAB’s transcriptions of 5000 pages of the Wittgenstein Nachlass according to more specific research needs, and thus prepare Nachlass editions which may be more suited for their research than the editorial outputs pre-produced by WAB (such as the editions available from HyperWittgenstein, Wittgenstein Source or the Bergen Electronic Edition).

wab

This is still a draft version, and the range of options will be extended. For questions and comments write to Alois Pichler.

Corpus
Nachlass (WAB 5000)

Who
WAB

Where
http://wab.uib.no/transform/wab.php?modus=opsjoner